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Fluorescence microscopy

Bacti pathogenesis

Clinical bacteria gram negative bacillus microscope
Enterobacteriaceae, glucose-fermenting gram-negative bacilli

Citrobacter diversus, normal resolution gram stain of blood culture.

Citrobacter diversus, high magnification gram stain of blood culture.


Enterobacter cloacae, normal resolution gram stain of blood culture.

Enterobacter cloacae, high magnification gram stain of blood culture.

Escherichia coli, is a typical facultative gram negative rod which almost always infects opportunistically.

E coli, normal resolution gram stain of blood culture.

E coli, high magnification gram stain of blood culture.

E. coli conjugation

E. coli conjugation, two strains, one has fimbriae. One has male pilus, the other is female. TEM x27,700.

More E. coli electron micrographshttp://www.pbrc.hawaii.edu/kunkel/catalog/by_category/bacteria/

E coli with pili

E coli, strain 0157:H7

"Escherichia coli is a common gram negative bacterium found in normal human bacterial flora; some strains, however, can cause severe and life-threatening diarrhea."" Recently there has been an increase in disease caused by strain 0157:H7, both world wide and in the United States." "Contaminated ground beef has been incriminated as the major mode of transmission." "it can cause hemoragic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Persons developing HUS have a mortality rate of 3-10%, and and it is the leading cause of acute renal failure in children under the age of 4."http://www.wadsworth.org/databank/ecoli.htm, More about E. coli infections, http://www.health.state.ny.us/nysdoh/consumer/e_coli.htm

Klebsiella pneumoniae,

"The most clinically important speciies of this genus is K. pneumoniae. This large, non-motile bacterium produces large sticky colonies when plated on nutrient media. Klebsiella's pathogenicity can be attributed to its production of a heat-stable enterotoxin. K. pneumoniae infections are common in hospitals where they cause pneumonia characterized by emission of bloody sputum and urinary tract infections in catheterized patients. In fact, K. pneumoniae is second only to E. coli as a urinary tract pathogen. Klebsiella infections are encountered far more often now than in the past. This is probably due to the bacterium's antibiotic resistance properties. Klebsiella species may contain resistance plasmids(R-plasmids) which confer resistance to such antibiotics as ampicillin and carbenicillin. To make matters worse, the R-plasmids can be transferred to other enteric bacteria not necessarily of the same species."


, normal resolution gram stain of blood culture.
Morganella morganii

Morganella morganii, high magnification gram stain of blood culture.

"Moraxella is a genus of gram-negative coccobacilli that is divided into two subgenera. When rod-shaped, it is referred to as subgenus Moraxella. M. lacunata sometimes causes conjunctivitis. When it is coccus-shaped, it is referred to as subgenus Branhamella. B. catarrhalis (M. catarrhalis; formerly Neisseria catarrhalis)can infect the sinuses and the ear. Confusing enough? Morganella morganii is still used." Gary E. Kaiser, Ph.D. Professor of Microbiology, personal communication.

Proteus Each of the clinical bacteria has its own claim to fame. This genera has two species which swarm over the agar plate in waves. Which species? Hint, swarming is a vulgar miracle.
PHIL ID# 1046 Proteus mirabilis. Swarming. Content Provider(s): CDC/Dr. John J. Farmer. 1975

P. mirabilis


Salmonellosis cases reported by the CDC for recent years total an average of 30,000 cases/year

Salmonella enteriditis
Salmonella typhi , causes typhoid fever.

"Salmonella typhi lives only in humans. Persons with typhoid fever carry the bacteria in their bloodstream and intestinal tract. In addition, a small number of persons, called carriers , recover from typhoid fever but continue to carry the bacteria. Both ill persons and carriers shed S. typhi in their feces (stool)"

"How can you avoid typhoid fever? Two basic actions can protect you from typhoid fever: 1. Avoid risky foods and drinks. 2. Get vaccinated against typhoid fever. It may surprise you, but watching what you eat and drink when you travel is as important as being vaccinated. This is because the vaccines are not completely effective. Avoiding risky foods will also help protect you from other illnesses, including travelers' diarrhea, cholera, dysentery, and hepatitis A."

"If you are traveling to a country where typhoid is common, you should consider being vaccinated against typhoid. Visit a doctor or travel clinic to discuss your vaccination options.""Remember that you will need to complete your vaccination at least 1 week before you travel.""Taking antibiotics will not prevent typhoid fever; they only help treat it. "

"Three commonly prescribed antibiotics are ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and ciprofloxacin. Persons given antibiotics usually begin to feel better within 2 to 3 days, and deaths rarely occur. However, persons who do not get treatment may continue to have fever for weeks or months, and as many as 20% may die from complications of the infection. "


CDC reports 13,000 cases of shigellosis for the year 1999, 16,000+ cases for 2000.
Serratia marcescens


Yersinia enterocolitica

"Yersiniosis is an infectious disease caused by a bacterium of the genus Yersinia. In the United States, most human illness is caused by one species, Y. enterocolitica."

"Y. enterocolitica infections are generally diagnosed by detecting the organism in the stools. Many laboratories do not routinely test for Y. enterocolitica,so it is important to notify laboratory personnel when infection with this bacterium is suspected so that special tests can be done. The organism can also be recovered from other sites, including the throat, lymph nodes, joint fluid, urine, bile, and blood."

"Y. enterocolitica is a relatively infrequent cause of diarrhea and abdominal pain. Based on data from the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet), which measures the burden and sources of specific diseases over time, approximately one culture-confirmed Y. enterocolitica infection per 100,000 persons occurs each year. Children are infected more often than adults, and the infection is more common in the winter. " "Infection is most often acquired by eating contaminated food, especially raw or undercooked pork products. The preparation of raw pork intestines (chitterlings) may be particularly risky."


Yersinia pestis , causes plague. You may remember the classic story of interaction between Ratus norvechicus, Ratus ratus and man. If your laboratory reports your patient has Yersinia pestis, have them repeat the test because someone has undoubtedly goofed.
Centers for Disease Control
Division of Bacterial & Mycotic Diseases
National Center for Infectious Diseases
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, CDC
for epidemiological trends and clear perspective.

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Electron Microscopy Genomic Solutions
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