glucose-fermenting gram-negative bacilli
Citrobacter diversus, normal resolution gram stain of
diversus, high magnification gram stain of blood culture.
normal resolution gram stain of blood culture.
Enterobacter cloacae, high
magnification gram stain of blood culture.
|Escherichia coli, is a
typical facultative gram negative rod which almost always infects
coli, normal resolution gram stain of blood culture.
E coli, high magnification gram stain of blood
E. coli conjugation, two strains, one has
fimbriae. One has male pilus, the other is female. TEM x27,700.
More E. coli electron micrographshttp://www.pbrc.hawaii.edu/kunkel/catalog/by_category/bacteria/
E coli, strain
"Escherichia coli is a common gram negative bacterium
found in normal human bacterial flora; some strains, however, can cause severe
and life-threatening diarrhea."" Recently there has been an increase in disease
caused by strain 0157:H7, both world wide and in the United States."
"Contaminated ground beef has been incriminated as the major mode of
transmission." "it can cause hemoragic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome
(HUS). Persons developing HUS have a mortality rate of 3-10%, and and it is the
leading cause of acute renal failure in children under the age of 4."http://www.wadsworth.org/databank/ecoli.htm,
More about E. coli infections,
"The most clinically important speciies of this genus is
K. pneumoniae. This large, non-motile bacterium produces large sticky
colonies when plated on nutrient media. Klebsiella's pathogenicity can be
attributed to its production of a heat-stable enterotoxin. K. pneumoniae
infections are common in hospitals where they cause pneumonia characterized by
emission of bloody sputum and urinary tract infections in catheterized
patients. In fact, K. pneumoniae is second only to E. coli as a
urinary tract pathogen. Klebsiella infections are encountered far more often
now than in the past. This is probably due to the bacterium's antibiotic
resistance properties. Klebsiella species may contain resistance
plasmids(R-plasmids) which confer resistance to such antibiotics as ampicillin
and carbenicillin. To make matters worse, the R-plasmids can be transferred to
other enteric bacteria not necessarily of the same species."
|, normal resolution gram
stain of blood culture.
Morganella morganii, high
magnification gram stain of blood culture.
"Moraxella is a genus of gram-negative coccobacilli that is
divided into two subgenera. When rod-shaped, it is referred to as subgenus
Moraxella. M. lacunata sometimes causes conjunctivitis. When it is
coccus-shaped, it is referred to as subgenus Branhamella. B. catarrhalis (M.
catarrhalis; formerly Neisseria catarrhalis)can infect the sinuses and the ear.
Confusing enough? Morganella morganii is still used." Gary E. Kaiser, Ph.D.
Professor of Microbiology, personal communication.
Proteus Each of the clinical bacteria has its
own claim to fame. This genera has two species which swarm over the agar plate
in waves. Which species? Hint, swarming is a vulgar miracle.
PHIL ID# 1046
Proteus mirabilis. Swarming. Content Provider(s): CDC/Dr. John J.
Salmonellosis cases reported by the CDC for recent years
total an average of 30,000 cases/yearSalmonella enteriditis
|Salmonella typhi , causes
"Salmonella typhi lives only in humans. Persons with
typhoid fever carry the bacteria in their bloodstream and intestinal tract. In
addition, a small number of persons, called carriers , recover from typhoid
fever but continue to carry the bacteria. Both ill persons and carriers shed
S. typhi in their feces (stool)"
"How can you avoid typhoid fever? Two basic actions can
protect you from typhoid fever: 1. Avoid risky foods and drinks. 2. Get
vaccinated against typhoid fever. It may surprise you, but watching what you
eat and drink when you travel is as important as being vaccinated. This is
because the vaccines are not completely effective. Avoiding risky foods will
also help protect you from other illnesses, including travelers' diarrhea,
cholera, dysentery, and hepatitis A."
"If you are traveling to a country where typhoid is common,
you should consider being vaccinated against typhoid. Visit a doctor or travel
clinic to discuss your vaccination options.""Remember that you will need to
complete your vaccination at least 1 week before you travel.""Taking
antibiotics will not prevent typhoid fever; they only help treat it. "
"Three commonly prescribed antibiotics are ampicillin,
trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and ciprofloxacin. Persons given antibiotics
usually begin to feel better within 2 to 3 days, and deaths rarely occur.
However, persons who do not get treatment may continue to have fever for weeks
or months, and as many as 20% may die from complications of the infection.
reports 13,000 cases of shigellosis for the year 1999, 16,000+ cases for
"Yersiniosis is an infectious disease caused by a bacterium
of the genus Yersinia. In the United States, most human illness is caused by
one species, Y. enterocolitica."
"Y. enterocolitica infections are generally diagnosed
by detecting the organism in the stools. Many laboratories do not routinely
test for Y. enterocolitica,so it is important to notify laboratory
personnel when infection with this bacterium is suspected so that special tests
can be done. The organism can also be recovered from other sites, including the
throat, lymph nodes, joint fluid, urine, bile, and blood."
"Y. enterocolitica is a relatively infrequent cause
of diarrhea and abdominal pain. Based on data from the Foodborne Diseases
Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet), which measures the burden and sources of
specific diseases over time, approximately one culture-confirmed Y.
enterocolitica infection per 100,000 persons occurs each year. Children are
infected more often than adults, and the infection is more common in the
winter. " "Infection is most often acquired by eating contaminated food,
especially raw or undercooked pork products. The preparation of raw pork
intestines (chitterlings) may be particularly risky."
|Yersinia pestis , causes
plague. You may remember the classic story of interaction between Ratus
norvechicus, Ratus ratus and man. If your laboratory reports your
patient has Yersinia pestis, have them repeat the test because someone
has undoubtedly goofed.