|Fastidious gram negative bacilli
|Actinobacillus Opportunistic cause
of blood infections.
Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans has
the longest name of any gnr.
PHIL ID# 1257 Title: Actinobacillus
suis. Gram stain. Content Provider(s): CDC/Dr. W.A. Clarkhttp://phil.cdc.gov/public/1257.htm
PHIL ID# 1258 Title: Actinobacillus
lignieresi. Gram stain. Content Provider(s): CDC/Dr. W.A. Clark
Dennis Kunkel Actinobacillus electron
Pertussis. " Clinical Features: Highly communicable,
vaccine-preventable disease that lasts for many weeks and is typically
manifested in children with paroxysmal spasms of severe coughing, whooping, and
posttussive vomiting. Etiologic Agent: Bordetella pertussis, a gram-negative
coccobacillus. Incidence: This disease results in high morbidity and mortality
in many countries every year. In the United States, 5000-7000 cases are
reported each year. Incidence of pertussis has increased steadily since the
1980s. The highest incidence since 1967 (2.9/100,000) was reported in 1996,
when 7796 cases of pertussis were reported."http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dbmd/diseaseinfo/pertussis_t.htm
Bordetella pertussis, parapertussis Whooping
cough bacterium. Microscopic FA technique is the method of choice for
identification where FA equipment is available. CDC reports over 5,000 cases of
Bordetella pertussis infection for 1999.
"B pertussis can be cultured
on modified Bordet-Gengou medium, charcoal-horseblood agar (Regan-Lowe) or
grown in supplement Stainer-Scholte broth. Bordetella DNA can also be detected
by PCR. Circulating antibodies appear in week 3 of illness and peak in the
eighth to tenth week. Antibodies can be demonstrated by an enzyme-linked
immunosorbent assay. Detection of specific IgA provides evidence of natural
Treatment with erythromycin does not alter the course of
disease, but reduces the infectious period to 5 to 10 days. Inactivated
whole-cell vaccines are highly effective, but occasionally cause toxic side
effects. Acellular vaccines with fewer side effects have been licensed for
booster vaccination and will possibly be also licensed for primary vaccination.
""Bordetella pertussis causes whooping cough (pertussis), an acute
respiratory infection marked by severe, spasmodic coughing episodes during the
paroxysmal phase. Leukocytosis with lymphocytosis is also common during this
phase of the illness. Dangerous complications are bronchopneumonia and acute
encephalopathy. Bordetella parapertussis can cause a milder form of
The bordetellae are small, gram-negative, aerobic coccobacilli.
Bordetella pertussis produces a number of virulence factors, including
pertussis toxin, adenylate cyclase toxin, filamentous hemagglutinin, and
hemolysin. Agglutinogens and other outer membrane proteins are important
Kunkel micrograph: 97364d
Bristol University, UK, BristolBiomedical Archive has three
images of gross pathology of Bordetella bronchiseptica infection.
Enter "bordetella" and hit return. http://www.brisbio.ac.uk/
PHIL ID# 1037 Title: Bordetella bronchiseptica.
Leifson flagella stain (digitally colorized). Content Provider(s): CDC/Dr.
William A. Clark.
PHIL ID# 254 Title: Scanning electron micrograph of
Bordetella bronchiseptica Content Provider(s): CDC/Janice Carr Provider
E-Mail: email@example.com http://phil.cdc.gov/public/254.htm
"In humans brucellosis can cause a range of
symptoms from mild flu-like illness to severe infection of the central nervous
system or lining of the heart. It can also cause long-lasting or chronic
symptoms that include recurrent fevers, joint pain, and depression. "
"Brucellosis is not very common in the United
States, where100 to 200 cases occur each year." "Although brucellosis can be
found worldwide, it is more common in countries that do not have good
standardized and effective public health and domestic animal health programs.
Areas currently listed as high risk are the Mediterranean Basin (Portugal,
Spain, Southern France, Italy, Greece, Turkey, North Africa), South and Central
America, Eastern Europe, Asia, Africa, the Caribbean, and the Middle East.
Unpasteurized cheeses, sometimes called "village cheeses," from these areas may
represent a particular risk for tourists." "When sheep, goats, cows, or camels
are infected, their milk is contaminated with the bacteria. If the milk is not
pasteurized, these bacteria can be transmitted to persons who drink the milk or
eat cheeses made it." "Inhalation of Brucella organisms is not a common route
of infection, but it can be important for those working in laboratories where
the organism is cultured and could be inhaled by accident." "treatment can be
difficult. Doctors can prescribe effective antibiotics. Usually, doxycycline
and rifampin are used in combination for 6 weeks."
From CDC brucellosis fact page for Brucella
melitensis, abortus, suis, and canis:
Additional information from the CDC, MMWR:
Blood agar plate culture of Brucella
suis. Content Provider(s): CDC/Dr. W.A. Clark
Campylobacter Invasive pathogen
which causes 5-10% of all diarrhea cases anually in the US. The diarrhea is
bloody due to the invasiveness of the organism. Campylobacter jejuni is
the most common species. Gram stain shows curved rod shape very similar to
Helicobacter pylori. DOC is erythromycin.
Campylobacter fetus. Leifson flagella stain (digitally
colorized).CDC/Dr. William A. Clark
Blood agar plate culture of
Campylobacter fetus s. intestinalis. Content Provider(s): CDC/Dr. W.A.
"Capnocytophaga canimorsus DF-2; ...gliding rod or
filamentous...A zoonotic microorganism, it can be transmitted from dog to man
through a dog bite; causes septicemia and meningitis."
EM images from Dennis
Kunkel, University of Hawaii,
Blood agar plate culture of Cardiobacterium
hominis.CDC/Dr. W.A. Clark http://phil.cdc.gov/public/761.htm
Franciscella tularensis causes tularemia.
Rabbit and squirrel hunters have died from eating undercooked infected meat. If
you are a physician and your lab tells you the organism id is F
tularensis, you might request confirmation. This organism is rare.
"Franciscella is primarily a pathogen of squirrels and
rabbits; humans are infected by the bite of an infected deerfly or tick or by
handling infected rabbit carcasses or eating undercooked meat."
"Cultivation from blood or biopsy material is difficult and
slow. Blood smears can be stained with specific fluorescent antibody.
Hemagglutinins appear in 10 to 12 days; a rising titer is diagnostic."
Francisella tularensisDennis Kunkel, EM image,
Type b Haemophilus influenzae can cause
meningitis, epiglottitis, bacteremia, and cellulitis. Nontypable H
influenzae can cause otitias media, sinusitis, tracheobronchitis, and
pneumonia. Other Haemophilus species and the syndromes they cause include H
parainfluenzae (pneumonia and endocarditis), H ducreyi (genital
chancre), and H aegyptius (conjunctivitis or Brazilian purpuric
fever).Haemophilus species are gram-negative coccobacilli similar in
ultrastructural features to other pathogenic bacilli. Haemophilus
influenzae requires hemin (factor X) and NAD+ (factor V) for growth. Other
Haemophilus species require only NAD+ and therefore grow on blood agar.
"Respiratory secretions and cerebrospinal fluid must be
cultured on chocolate agar. Blood cultures are positive in meningitis. Capsular
antigen may be detected in cerebrospinal fluid for early identification if Gram
stain is unsuccessful. Haemophilus ducreyi grows on Mueller-Hinton agar
with 5 percent sheep blood in a CO2 enriched atmosphere."
"Recommended treatment includes ampicillin for strains of H
influenzae that do not make ß-lactamase and a third generation
cephalosporin or chloramphenicol for strains that do."
Haemophilus ducreyi Sexually transmitted
disease organism. Soft chancre, chancroid
"Haemophilus ducreyi is a major cause of human
genital ulcer disease (chancroid) in developing countries (incidence being
highest in African, Asian and Latin American nations)."
|Haemophilus influenzae is a gram
negative, fastidious coccobacillus requiring growth factors available in
hemolyzed chocolate blood agar.
"In the United States and other industrialized countries,
more than one-half of Haemophilus influenzae serotype b (Hib) cases
present as meningitis with fever, headache, and stiff neck. The remainder
present as cellulitis, arthritis, or sepsis. In developing countries, Hib is
the second leading cause of bacterial pneumonia deaths in children as well."
"Haemophilus influenzae serotype b. Incidence During 1980-1990,
incidence was 40-100/100,000 children < 5 yrs old in the United States. In
1995, since use of Hib conjugate vaccine, incidence is < 2 cases /100,000
children . Hib remains a major cause of lower respiratory tract infections in
infants and children in developing countries where vaccine is not widely used.
Sequelae 3%-6% of cases are fatal; up to 20% of surviving patients have
permanent hearing loss."
CDC reports 969 cases of invasive H influenzae
infection for 1999.
Helicobacter pylori Until a few
years ago nobody was even aware that this organism existed. That's because it
was not supposed that a bacterium could live in a region as inhospitable as the
human stomach. Most if not all normal mouth flora are killed by the strong
hydrochloric acid and or the proteolytic enzymes present in the stomach. The
normal enteric flora don't like it any better. Nonetheless, 50% of persons have
the organism. It does not always cause symptoms but, is the leading cause of
peptic ulcer in the US. It is a weakly negative gram staining curved rod. It is
most often diagnosed with a blood test. DOC is antacid and
Helicobacter pylori website section at CDC.
Legionella pneumophila is the
causitive agent of Legionaire's disease. The CDC reports 811 cases in the US in
Positive indirect FA test for Legionella
Stab culture of Legionella pneumophila.
Brown pigment, nonmotile.http://phil.cdc.gov/public/1186.htm
"Legionella pneumophila multiplying
inside a cultured human lung fibroblast." CDC/Dr. Edwin P. Ewing, Jr.,
Acinetobacter is a member of the family Neisseriaceae, along with
Neisseriaand Kingella,and is a fastidious gram negative bacillus.
A. baumannii is the most common member.
Acinetobacter calcoaceticus. Gram stain.
Content Provider(s): CDC/Dr. W.A. Clark,
Eikenella corrodens gets its name
by virtue of the fact that it can make the solid media upon which it is grown
appear corroded with pits in the agar. If you work in a bacti lab and are lucky
enough to snag one of these puppies, by all means take a photo of the plate.
You can keep it as a trophy which will be cause for envy by your
"Eikenella corrodens is a small oxidase-positive, fastidious
gram-negative rod, which requires carbon dioxide for growth. Many isolates form
pits in agar during growth on solid medium. E. corrodens is part of the
gingival and bowel flora in 40-70% of humans and may be found in mixed flora
infections associated with contamination from these sites. It occurs frequently
in infections from human bites. E corrodens is resistant to clindamycin,
but susceptible to ampicillin and third generation
cephalosporins."Eikenella and Kingella species are short bacilli
or coccoid bacteria that act as opportunistic pathogens. They are sometimes
secondary invaders of damaged tissues."
PHIL ID# 1601 Title: Blood agar plate culture
of Eikenella corrodens. Content Provider(s): CDC/Dr. W.A. Clark
PHIL ID# 1602 Title: Blood agar plate culture
of Eikenella corrodens, close up. Content Provider(s): CDC/Dr. W.A. Clarkhttp://phil.cdc.gov/public/1602.htm
kingae and Kingella denitrificans are oxidase-positive non-motile
organisms that are hemolytic when grown on blood agar. They are gram-negative
rods, but may resemble coccobacilli or diplococci. They are part of the normal
oral flora and occasionally cause infections of bone, joints, and tendons. The
organism may enter the circulation with minor oral trauma such as tooth
brushing. It is susceptible to penicillin, ampicillin, and erythromycin."