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Microbiology

Fluorescence microscopy

Bacti pathogenesis

GNC GPR GPC
Clinical bacteria gram negative bacillus microscope
Fastidious gram negative bacilli
Actinobacillus Opportunistic cause of blood infections.

Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans has the longest name of any gnr.

Actinobacillus suis

PHIL ID# 1257 Title: Actinobacillus suis. Gram stain. Content Provider(s): CDC/Dr. W.A. Clarkhttp://phil.cdc.gov/public/1257.htm

Actinobacillus lignieresi

PHIL ID# 1258 Title: Actinobacillus lignieresi. Gram stain. Content Provider(s): CDC/Dr. W.A. Clark http://phil.cdc.gov/public/1258.htm

Dennis Kunkel Actinobacillus electron micrograph: http://www.pbrc.hawaii.edu/kunkel/catalog/by_category/bacteria/page001/96546f.html


Bordetella

Pertussis. " Clinical Features: Highly communicable, vaccine-preventable disease that lasts for many weeks and is typically manifested in children with paroxysmal spasms of severe coughing, whooping, and posttussive vomiting. Etiologic Agent: Bordetella pertussis, a gram-negative coccobacillus. Incidence: This disease results in high morbidity and mortality in many countries every year. In the United States, 5000-7000 cases are reported each year. Incidence of pertussis has increased steadily since the 1980s. The highest incidence since 1967 (2.9/100,000) was reported in 1996, when 7796 cases of pertussis were reported."http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dbmd/diseaseinfo/pertussis_t.htm

Bordetella pertussis, parapertussis Whooping cough bacterium. Microscopic FA technique is the method of choice for identification where FA equipment is available. CDC reports over 5,000 cases of Bordetella pertussis infection for 1999.
"B pertussis can be cultured on modified Bordet-Gengou medium, charcoal-horseblood agar (Regan-Lowe) or grown in supplement Stainer-Scholte broth. Bordetella DNA can also be detected by PCR. Circulating antibodies appear in week 3 of illness and peak in the eighth to tenth week. Antibodies can be demonstrated by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Detection of specific IgA provides evidence of natural infection. ""
Treatment with erythromycin does not alter the course of disease, but reduces the infectious period to 5 to 10 days. Inactivated whole-cell vaccines are highly effective, but occasionally cause toxic side effects. Acellular vaccines with fewer side effects have been licensed for booster vaccination and will possibly be also licensed for primary vaccination. ""Bordetella pertussis causes whooping cough (pertussis), an acute respiratory infection marked by severe, spasmodic coughing episodes during the paroxysmal phase. Leukocytosis with lymphocytosis is also common during this phase of the illness. Dangerous complications are bronchopneumonia and acute encephalopathy. Bordetella parapertussis can cause a milder form of pertussis.
The bordetellae are small, gram-negative, aerobic coccobacilli. Bordetella pertussis produces a number of virulence factors, including pertussis toxin, adenylate cyclase toxin, filamentous hemagglutinin, and hemolysin. Agglutinogens and other outer membrane proteins are important antigens. "http://gsbs.utmb.edu/microbook/ch031.htm

Dennis Kunkel micrograph: 97364d

Bristol University, UK, BristolBiomedical Archive has three images of gross pathology of Bordetella bronchiseptica infection. Enter "bordetella" and hit return. http://www.brisbio.ac.uk/

Bordetella brontiseptica flagella stain

PHIL ID# 1037 Title: Bordetella bronchiseptica. Leifson flagella stain (digitally colorized). Content Provider(s): CDC/Dr. William A. Clark.

Bordetella EM

PHIL ID# 254 Title: Scanning electron micrograph of Bordetella bronchiseptica Content Provider(s): CDC/Janice Carr Provider E-Mail: jkh1@cdc.gov http://phil.cdc.gov/public/254.htm


Brucella

Brucella abortus

"In humans brucellosis can cause a range of symptoms from mild flu-like illness to severe infection of the central nervous system or lining of the heart. It can also cause long-lasting or chronic symptoms that include recurrent fevers, joint pain, and depression. "

"Brucellosis is not very common in the United States, where100 to 200 cases occur each year." "Although brucellosis can be found worldwide, it is more common in countries that do not have good standardized and effective public health and domestic animal health programs. Areas currently listed as high risk are the Mediterranean Basin (Portugal, Spain, Southern France, Italy, Greece, Turkey, North Africa), South and Central America, Eastern Europe, Asia, Africa, the Caribbean, and the Middle East. Unpasteurized cheeses, sometimes called "village cheeses," from these areas may represent a particular risk for tourists." "When sheep, goats, cows, or camels are infected, their milk is contaminated with the bacteria. If the milk is not pasteurized, these bacteria can be transmitted to persons who drink the milk or eat cheeses made it." "Inhalation of Brucella organisms is not a common route of infection, but it can be important for those working in laboratories where the organism is cultured and could be inhaled by accident." "treatment can be difficult. Doctors can prescribe effective antibiotics. Usually, doxycycline and rifampin are used in combination for 6 weeks."

From CDC brucellosis fact page for Brucella melitensis, abortus, suis, and canis: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dbmd/diseaseinfo/brucellosis_g.htm#whatis

Additional information from the CDC, MMWR: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dbmd/diseaseinfo/brucellosis_a.htm

Blood agar plate culture of Brucella suis. Content Provider(s): CDC/Dr. W.A. Clark http://phil.cdc.gov/public/760.htm


Campylobacter Invasive pathogen which causes 5-10% of all diarrhea cases anually in the US. The diarrhea is bloody due to the invasiveness of the organism. Campylobacter jejuni is the most common species. Gram stain shows curved rod shape very similar to Helicobacter pylori. DOC is erythromycin.

Campylobacte flagella stain
Campylobacter fetus. Leifson flagella stain (digitally colorized).CDC/Dr. William A. Clark http://phil.cdc.gov/public/1036.htm


Blood agar plate culture of Campylobacter fetus s. intestinalis. Content Provider(s): CDC/Dr. W.A. Clark http://phil.cdc.gov/public/763.htm

Campylobacter blood plate


Capnocytophaga
"Capnocytophaga canimorsus DF-2; ...gliding rod or filamentous...A zoonotic microorganism, it can be transmitted from dog to man through a dog bite; causes septicemia and meningitis."
EM images from Dennis Kunkel, University of Hawaii, 96560d, 97351a, 96556b


Cardiobacterium hominis


Cardibacterium hominis blood plate
Blood agar plate culture of Cardiobacterium hominis.CDC/Dr. W.A. Clark http://phil.cdc.gov/public/761.htm


Franciscella tularensis causes tularemia. Rabbit and squirrel hunters have died from eating undercooked infected meat. If you are a physician and your lab tells you the organism id is F tularensis, you might request confirmation. This organism is rare.

"Franciscella is primarily a pathogen of squirrels and rabbits; humans are infected by the bite of an infected deerfly or tick or by handling infected rabbit carcasses or eating undercooked meat."

"Cultivation from blood or biopsy material is difficult and slow. Blood smears can be stained with specific fluorescent antibody. Hemagglutinins appear in 10 to 12 days; a rising titer is diagnostic."

http://gsbs.utmb.edu/microbook/ch029.htm

Francisella tularensisDennis Kunkel, EM image, 96528e


Haemophilus

Type b Haemophilus influenzae can cause meningitis, epiglottitis, bacteremia, and cellulitis. Nontypable H influenzae can cause otitias media, sinusitis, tracheobronchitis, and pneumonia. Other Haemophilus species and the syndromes they cause include H parainfluenzae (pneumonia and endocarditis), H ducreyi (genital chancre), and H aegyptius (conjunctivitis or Brazilian purpuric fever).Haemophilus species are gram-negative coccobacilli similar in ultrastructural features to other pathogenic bacilli. Haemophilus influenzae requires hemin (factor X) and NAD+ (factor V) for growth. Other Haemophilus species require only NAD+ and therefore grow on blood agar.

"Respiratory secretions and cerebrospinal fluid must be cultured on chocolate agar. Blood cultures are positive in meningitis. Capsular antigen may be detected in cerebrospinal fluid for early identification if Gram stain is unsuccessful. Haemophilus ducreyi grows on Mueller-Hinton agar with 5 percent sheep blood in a CO2 enriched atmosphere."

"Recommended treatment includes ampicillin for strains of H influenzae that do not make ß-lactamase and a third generation cephalosporin or chloramphenicol for strains that do."

http://gsbs.utmb.edu/microbook/ch030.htm

Haemophilus ducreyi Sexually transmitted disease organism. Soft chancre, chancroid

"Haemophilus ducreyi is a major cause of human genital ulcer disease (chancroid) in developing countries (incidence being highest in African, Asian and Latin American nations)." http://www.wadsworth.org/databank/haemoph.htm

Haemophilus ducreyi

Haemophilus influenzae is a gram negative, fastidious coccobacillus requiring growth factors available in hemolyzed chocolate blood agar.

"In the United States and other industrialized countries, more than one-half of Haemophilus influenzae serotype b (Hib) cases present as meningitis with fever, headache, and stiff neck. The remainder present as cellulitis, arthritis, or sepsis. In developing countries, Hib is the second leading cause of bacterial pneumonia deaths in children as well." "Haemophilus influenzae serotype b. Incidence During 1980-1990, incidence was 40-100/100,000 children < 5 yrs old in the United States. In 1995, since use of Hib conjugate vaccine, incidence is < 2 cases /100,000 children . Hib remains a major cause of lower respiratory tract infections in infants and children in developing countries where vaccine is not widely used. Sequelae 3%-6% of cases are fatal; up to 20% of surviving patients have permanent hearing loss." http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dbmd/diseaseinfo/haeminfluserob_t.htm

CDC reports 969 cases of invasive H influenzae infection for 1999.


Helicobacter pylori Until a few years ago nobody was even aware that this organism existed. That's because it was not supposed that a bacterium could live in a region as inhospitable as the human stomach. Most if not all normal mouth flora are killed by the strong hydrochloric acid and or the proteolytic enzymes present in the stomach. The normal enteric flora don't like it any better. Nonetheless, 50% of persons have the organism. It does not always cause symptoms but, is the leading cause of peptic ulcer in the US. It is a weakly negative gram staining curved rod. It is most often diagnosed with a blood test. DOC is antacid and tetracycline.
Helicobacter pylori website section at CDC. http://www.cdc.gov/ulcer/


Legionella pneumophila is the causitive agent of Legionaire's disease. The CDC reports 811 cases in the US in 1999.

Legionella pneumophila IFA

Positive indirect FA test for Legionella pneumophila. http://phil.cdc.gov/public/1188.htm

Legionella pneumophila stab

Stab culture of Legionella pneumophila. Brown pigment, nonmotile.http://phil.cdc.gov/public/1186.htm

L. pneumophila in lung fibroblast

"Legionella pneumophila multiplying inside a cultured human lung fibroblast." CDC/Dr. Edwin P. Ewing, Jr., epe1@cdc.gov http://phil.cdc.gov/public/934.htm

Legionella pneumophila


Pasteurella multocida


Acinetobacter baumannii Acinetobacter is a member of the family Neisseriaceae, along with Neisseriaand Kingella,and is a fastidious gram negative bacillus. A. baumannii is the most common member.

Acinetobacter calcoaceticus

Acinetobacter calcoaceticus. Gram stain. Content Provider(s): CDC/Dr. W.A. Clark, http://phil.cdc.gov/public/1259.htm


Eikenella corrodens gets its name by virtue of the fact that it can make the solid media upon which it is grown appear corroded with pits in the agar. If you work in a bacti lab and are lucky enough to snag one of these puppies, by all means take a photo of the plate. You can keep it as a trophy which will be cause for envy by your peers.
"Eikenella corrodens is a small oxidase-positive, fastidious gram-negative rod, which requires carbon dioxide for growth. Many isolates form pits in agar during growth on solid medium. E. corrodens is part of the gingival and bowel flora in 40-70% of humans and may be found in mixed flora infections associated with contamination from these sites. It occurs frequently in infections from human bites. E corrodens is resistant to clindamycin, but susceptible to ampicillin and third generation cephalosporins."Eikenella and Kingella species are short bacilli or coccoid bacteria that act as opportunistic pathogens. They are sometimes secondary invaders of damaged tissues."
http://gsbs.utmb.edu/microbook/ch014.htm

Eikenella 1601

PHIL ID# 1601 Title: Blood agar plate culture of Eikenella corrodens. Content Provider(s): CDC/Dr. W.A. Clark http://phil.cdc.gov/public/1601.htm

Eikenella 1602

PHIL ID# 1602 Title: Blood agar plate culture of Eikenella corrodens, close up. Content Provider(s): CDC/Dr. W.A. Clarkhttp://phil.cdc.gov/public/1602.htm


Kingella
""Kingella kingae and Kingella denitrificans are oxidase-positive non-motile organisms that are hemolytic when grown on blood agar. They are gram-negative rods, but may resemble coccobacilli or diplococci. They are part of the normal oral flora and occasionally cause infections of bone, joints, and tendons. The organism may enter the circulation with minor oral trauma such as tooth brushing. It is susceptible to penicillin, ampicillin, and erythromycin."
http://gsbs.utmb.edu/microbook/ch014.htm

Centers for Disease Control
http://www.cdc.gov
Division of Bacterial & Mycotic Diseases
http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dbmd/
National Center for Infectious Diseases
http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, CDC
for epidemiological trends and clear perspective.
http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr//

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